Basic knowledge of color theory (3)
III. theory of color vision is developed based on the color recognition mechanism of human visual system. Its purpose is to explain or assist researchers to understand and master the phenomenon and relationship between naked eye vision and color. After years of research, color vision theory can be summarized into the following three theories:
1 Three component or trichromatic theory
2 Opposite colors theory
3 Zone theory of color vision
the "three primary color theory of visual color" is the first theory proposed, and has always been in a leading position in color science; Later, the "theory of opposite color" was put forward, which is another important theory besides the theory of three primary colors of visual color, and has also been valued by the color science community; Although these two color vision theories can explain most of the visual color phenomena, in recent years, the "stage visual color theory" has been put forward and accepted by everyone. This theory is a combination of the basic concepts of the "three primary colors theory of visual color" and the "opposite color theory", which are integrated and complementary to each other. As for the details of these three color vision theories, they will be explained in the special articles on color technology. In this paper, we will first discuss the "three primary colors theory of visual color"
in 1802, British Tomas young found that using the mixing of red, green and blue light can produce various colors, so he published and put forward the theory of three primary colors of color; In 1861, Maxwell made the first color photo by using the mixing method of three primary colors; By the end of the 19th century? In 1892, German Helmholtz verified and elaborated his theory, so the visual color trichromatic theory is also called "young Helmholtz color trichromatic theory"
according to its theory, three kinds of visual cells on the human visual membrane are named after connecting with three different nerve cells in the cerebral cortex, and the stimulation of each cell will cause a primary color feeling? There are three colors: red, green and blue. This argument is explained in detail in the last article, and readers should have some impression. When the light reflected (or transmitted) by the light irradiator enters the human visual system, it will cause the stimulation of three different cells at the same time, and the wavelength characteristics of light make the intensity ratio of the combined stimulation of the three cells different, resulting in the feeling of different colors. This theory was put forward by Tomas young of Britain. When a certain color feeling occurs, one of the three cells will stimulate the most strongly, but the other two cells will also stimulate to some extent, that is, all three cells will be stimulated, so there will be white light components for each color, that is, there will be a sense of lightness. The sense of brightness is the sum of the brightness senses provided by the three cells. Later, German Helmholtz added Tomas Young's theory that different parts of the spectrum can cause stimulation of three different cells with different intensity ratios, and the color seen in the mixed color light is the stimulation result of three different cells. For the eyes, this is the first time that the scientific community has used light to drive a macro object to red, green Monochromatic light other than blue is more reasonably explained. In a word, any color seen by the eye is the result of the combined stimulation of the three visual cells by lightThe greatest advantage of young Helmholtz's three primary colors theory is that it can fully explain the mixing phenomenon of various colors and solve the problem of color reproduction. For example, color reproduction of color films and color TVs is developed on this theoretical basis; The hypothesis of three kinds of photoreceptors proposed by him has also been proved in the experimental results, which establishes the basic concept of spectral tristimulus value. This theory can be said to be the root of the development of modern "colorimetry". However, the disadvantage of this color vision theory is that it can not satisfactorily explain the phenomenon of color blindness. As for the phenomenon of color blindness, Helmholtz believes that color blindness is caused by the lack of one (monochromatic blindness) or two or even three (total color blindness) cone cells when the pump motor is in lack of power. Therefore, according to its theory, red blindness, green blindness and blue blindness can exist alone, but in fact, all people with red blindness are also green blindness at the same time, In other words, people who are red blind generally cannot distinguish between red and green, which is called red green blindness; At the same time, according to its theory, red green blind people should not have the feeling of yellow - because red green blind people lack red and green cone cells, and the small panel control system of yellow color sense manufacturers still has many remarkable skills. The sense is formed by red and green cone cells, but in fact, red green blind people also have the feeling of yellow; In addition, according to its theory, only when the three photoreceptors act at the same time can there be a neutral color - white or gray feeling. Color blind people lack at least one of the conical cells, so they should not have a neutral color to avoid smoke to the room when the temperature is high? White or gray, but even people who are completely color blind have the feeling of brightness or white. Therefore, as far as the "three primary colors theory of visual color" is concerned, there are contradictions and unexplainable phenomena. Therefore, another school of color vision theory - Hering's "opposite color theory". As for the "opposite color theory", it will be discussed and explained in the next special article
(to be continued)
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