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Introduction: during the 11th Five Year Plan period, China's machine tool industry has made remarkable achievements. At the beginning of the 12th Five Year Plan period, it is particularly important to summarize the experience of the past five years and plan the prospects for the next five years. On the occasion of carrying forward the past and opening up the future, en Baogui, the former deputy chief engineer of the machine tool Bureau of the Ministry of machinery industry and a well-known expert in the machine tool industry, wrote the article "the Eleventh Five Year Plan for the machine tool industry: from quantity to quality", reviewed the development history of China's machine tool industry in the past five years, and offered suggestions for China's goal of building a powerful machine tool country in the 12th Five Year Plan

when new China was founded, China only produced 1600 simple belt machine tools. By 2009, 582000 sets of metal cutting machine tools were produced, including more than 120000 sets of CNC machine tools. The output value and output of machine tools ranked first in the world. It can be said that China's machine tool industry started from scratch and became the world's largest machine tool production country. Although the process is tortuous, the achievements made are worthy of pride. Among them, during the 11th Five Year Plan period, China's machine tool industry is getting better and better, opening up a golden development period for China's machine tool industry

from quantity increase to qualitative change

from 2001 to 2009, the output of China's metal cutting machine tools increased by 28% compared with 2005. In 2009, the output of CNC machine tools was 2.4 times that of 2005. The NC rate of output increased from 13.2% in 2005 to 200. If the lever levelness was controlled within 0.05%, it increased to 24.8% in 9 years, and the NC rate of machine tool output exceeded 50%

1993, the output of China's metal cutting machine tools reached a new high of 262000. From 1994 to 2010, the machine tool industry was in the adjustment period. The annual output of machine tools remained at about 200000. In 2003, it jumped to 300000, in 2005 to 500000, and in 2007 to 606800. According to incomplete statistics, the output of machine tools in 2010 will reach a new high. From the second half of last century to the beginning of this century, industrial developed countries are providing users with high-precision, high-efficiency, composite, energy-saving (materials) and green products with a high degree of integration, and the output is gradually declining. During the Second World War in 1942, the output of metal cutting machine tools in the United States reached 300000 sets per year. During the Korean War in 1952, the annual output was 223000 sets, and then the annual output gradually decreased to less than 100000 sets. Japan produced 106157 sets of metal cutting machine tools in 2007, which is the highest output in industrialized countries. The output of its CNC machine tools is 82356 sets, with a CNC rate of 77% and a CNC rate of nearly 90%. In 2008, the numerical control rate (%) of the output value of metal cutting machine tools in major countries was 87.8% in Japan, 90% in Germany, 76.7% in the United States, 62.1% in India and 58.48% in China

At the beginning of the 21st century, the labor productivity of China's equipment manufacturing industry was much lower than that of industrialized countries. The labor productivity of Germany's equipment manufacturing industry was 8 times that of China and that of Japan was 7.9 times that of China. At present, China's GDP accounts for only 8% of the world, while the output of metal cutting machine tools accounts for 60% of the world, indicating that the quality of the equipment we provide is low and the consumption of energy and raw materials is high. In the future, China's manufacturing industry should speed up independent innovation and technological transformation in the process of structural adjustment and production mode transformation, and require the machine tool industry to provide equipment with high technology and high added value to create higher benefits for users. This is the general trend

during the Eleventh Five Year Plan period, China eliminated 111.72 million tons of backward iron making capacity and 66.83 million tons of steel making. In 1949, China's steel output was 150000 tons. It took 47 years to reach an annual output of 100million tons, and it took seven years from 100million tons to 200million tons. After 2003, it almost increased by nearly 100 million tons every year. It is estimated that in 2010, the steel output will reach 600million tons, and the production capacity will exceed 700 million tons. In the future, the iron and steel industry will follow the path of sustainable development according to the scientific concept of development, and the output will increase rationally. Steel is the main object of machine tool processing, and the output growth will slow down, providing a signal for the machine tool industry to reduce the quantity and improve the quality

the automobile industry, the largest user of China's machine tool industry, produced its first automobile in 1956, reaching an annual output of 1million in 1992, 2million in 2000, 13million in 2009 and 17million in 2010, becoming the world's largest automobile producer. It is expected that in the future, due to the limitations of energy, roads and the automobile industry, the output growth is bound to slow down. At present, the cold working process of major automobile enterprises in China has realized high-speed turning, high-speed milling, high-speed grinding, high-speed gear hobbing, and aluminum alloy turning and milling. The speed has reached 1000m/min, and is ready to move towards 3000m/min. Turning and milling centers, milling centers, turning and grinding centers, etc. are gradually adopted for small and medium-sized structural complex parts. The equipment is required to be more precise, efficient, reliable, composite and green

the information provided by upstream raw materials to downstream users requires the machine tool industry to shift from focusing on quantity to improving quality, and provide users with equipment supported by high and new technology. At the same time, the machine tool industry also achieves sustainable development with low material consumption

there are many machining centers produced in China, but the technical content is low. There are thousands of machine tool enterprises in China, and there are nearly 100 in some counties. From the perspective of market demand, there is no need to increase the new production capacity of ordinary lathes, economic CNC lathes, fast wire EDM machines, etc

move towards the characteristic direction of high added value

the output structure of China's existing machine tools is backward, with large quantity and low quality. In 2007, 231 major machine tool enterprises produced 470000 sets of metal cutting machine tools, with the NC rate of output of 21% and the NC rate of output value of 57%. Among them, there are 209825 lathes and 54380 CNC lathes, with a CNC rate of 25%, that is, the output of ordinary lathes accounted for 75% of the output of lathes in that year. In the latter half of last century, the industrial developed countries gradually reduced or did not produce ordinary lathes at all. In addition, among the CNC lathes in China, the economic CNC lathes account for the majority, and do not have the ability to improve the efficiency more than twice as much as the universal CNC lathes

in 2008, the output of China's processing centers ranked third in the world, while the output value ranked behind Japan, the United States, Germany and South Korea. The market share of China's processing centers accounts for more than 50% by volume, and the value of bio rubber materials based on the renewable cash crop silver rubber chrysanthemum only accounts for 32%. Domestic automobile, aerospace and other enterprises seldom use domestic machining centers. Imported machining centers include high-grade and medium-grade ones. Therefore, in the future, we should not only speed up the development of high-grade CNC machine tools, but also strengthen the research and development to further increase the market share of medium-grade and above CNC machine tools

nowadays, the personalized needs of users are prominent. It is not only necessary to increase the requirements for characterization on general-purpose machine tools, but also to strengthen the development of special machine products. In the multi variety production, we should highlight the development of enterprises' characteristic products and drive the development of enterprises with characteristic brands. Hangzhou Machine Tool Group Co., Ltd. has taken the lead in the development of special aircraft products and achieved good corporate and social benefits. In history, the enterprise has researched and developed cross shaft double end grinder, piano reed grinder, fork connecting rod grinder, square hole grinder, etc. In recent years, the company has adopted digital design to provide blade birch tooth forming grinder mkld7140 for the aviation industry, and won the second prize of China Mechanical Science and technology; The company also developed CNC powerful forming grinder for Roots vacuum pump wheel; Provide Guideway Grinder for lathe manufacturing industry; Provide 8-axis 5-linkage impeller grinder for the shipbuilding industry; The CNC power grinder and cycloid wheel for rotor groove of vane pump in hydraulic parts industry are provided, and the powerful forming grinder is developed; Provide corrugated roll strong forming grinder for carton industry; Provide Borg plate grinding machine for high-speed railway; A column mobile powerful forming grinder is provided for the outer circular surface of the turbocharger impeller, and the linear speed of the grinding wheel can reach 40000 revolutions per minute

for example, Fayin numerical control, which has been established for only more than ten years, has a short enterprise age, but its business philosophy closely follows the pace of the times. They are no longer the traditional product management, but provide complete sets of services for the processing of section steel, angle steel, plate and wire rod, so as to achieve the turnkey project. Before 2000, the domestic steel structure processing equipment market was almost monopolized by Italy fisep, the world's largest steel processing machinery manufacturer. Now, the market share of domestic equipment in the field of steel structure CNC processing equipment in China has increased from less than 5% to 95%, and the market share of Fayin CNC has reached 62.14%

while accelerating the development of special machine product varieties, we should also develop special machine tools according to the needs of users. For example, the needle bed body of computerized knitting machine used to be processed by ordinary gantry milling with low efficiency and poor accuracy. With the cooperation of Zhongheng company and Jinlong Company, special CNC machine tools have been successfully developed, and the efficiency and accuracy have been significantly improved

with the development of new varieties, enterprises in developed countries have achieved a high degree of integration of industrialization and industrialization. In 2007, 231 enterprises in China developed 719 new varieties of metal cutting machine tools, including 469 kinds of CNC machine tools, accounting for 64%. The development of CNC machine tools should combine high, middle and low grades. At present, special attention should be paid to the development of medium and high-grade new varieties. For most enterprises, the top priority is to do a good job of medium-grade machine tools and gradually develop them into high-tech products with added value in China

NC machine tool compounding is one of the development trends. From the machining center, flexible manufacturing unit and flexible manufacturing system, now there is doneinone (highly complex), and all processes from part blank to part processing are concentrated on one machine tool. It has 72 hours of unmanned operation for processing, detection, loading and unloading, and has the intelligence of thermal compensation and anti-collision. For example, the position accuracy of ymc325x, y and Z of the small horizontal machining center of Yasuda Industrial Co., Ltd. in Japan is 0.408 m, 0.287 m and 0.27 m, the x/y flatness and roundness are 0.66 m, the spindle rotation accuracy is 0.1 M, and the maximum spindle speed is 40000 R/min. Makino bh50 horizontal machining center, with repeated positioning accuracy within 2 m

heavy duty machine tools should strive for first-class technical services

after decades of efforts, the development of heavy and ultra heavy duty machine tools in China has accelerated, and the annual output has exceeded 2000; The numerical control rate of output value exceeds 70%; From 2002 to 2008, the annual average output value increased by 42.38%. In 2009, the output value was 13.7 times that of 2000. In terms of product specifications, many world-class wear-resistant parts were manufactured: the maximum specification of the vertical lathe was 25m, the diameter of the mirror rod of the boring and milling machine was 320mm, the gantry processing width of the gantry boring and milling machine was 11m, the maximum processing diameter of the horizontal turning and milling machine was 5m, the maximum bearing capacity was 500 tons, and the maximum grinding diameter of the roll grinder was 2500mm. New breakthroughs and improvements have been made in the technical level. The advanced technologies that have been mastered include: mechanical transmission clearance elimination and transmission error compensation technology; Gantry movement synchronization technology; Displacement compensation technology of long span beam; Cantilever displacement compensation technology of boring and milling machine spindle; Unloading guidance technology of super large load and eccentric load; Processing, assembly and precision assurance of oversized parts; Hydrostatic guideway and hydrostatic bearing technology, etc

thanks to the advanced technology, many products have also won the first prize of the national science and Technology Progress Award: for example, the CKX53160 CNC turning milling compound machining machine tool of Wuhan Heavy Industries; Mk84125 roll grinder of Xianfeng machine tool plant; Qiyi crankshaft connecting rod journal whirlwind milling machine; And the th42160b/5x five axis linkage gantry machining center of Jiangsu duoling

in addition, a number of advanced products have emerged: the double dragon gate CNC boring and milling machine produced by Wuzhong, with a gantry width of 6.8m and a processing length of 57M, is the machine tool with the longest X-axis travel at present. The double dragon gate and four milling heads are the first in China, with a processing efficiency six times that of ordinary milling machines, and can be processed on five sides. Tk6932 double column CNC Floor Boring and milling machine of Qi'er machine tool has a boring bar diameter of 320mm, a column stroke of 41m, a headstock stroke of 8m, a ram stroke of 2M and a total weight of 760t. Column optimization technology, servo compensation technology for straightness of square ram extension, thermal extension compensation technology for ram and boring shaft, temperature rise control technology for heavy-duty high-speed spindle and shock absorption technology for counterweight are applied. Xka2 of Beiyi machine tool

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